Pediatric ent

TONSILLITIS

Tonsillitis is a common disease of children and young adults.
Presents with intense sore throat, which is often so sore that swallowing is painful, a condition called odynophagia. The tonsils can swell and cause difficulty swallowing, called dysphagia and may occasionally obstruct the airway.

Treated with course of antibiotics. Recurrent tonsillitis is often treated with a tonsillectomy.

EPISTAXIS

The blooding nose is a common emergency problem. The majority are spontaneous, with no identifiable cause, although many are traumatic. Causes such as hemophilia, other coagulopathies, leukemia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia or intranasal neoplasms must be considered. As usual, a complete history is taken.

Children and many adults often cause bleeding by nose picking. A pubertal male may have an angiofibroma. A person with a long history of smoking should be examined for an intranasal or paranasal sinus epidermoid cancer. Patients may require a laboratory examination. The complete blood cell count evaluates the hematocrit and signs of leukemia. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time/INR, platelet count, and Ivy bleeding time or other platelet function evaluate coagulation.

The majority of nosebleeds occur anteriorly from the nasal septum and cease spontaneously. If the nose is actively bleeding, the origin can often be seen by visual examination .If a definite bleeding site is identified, it may be cauterized with a silver nitrate . Posterior bleeds are managed endodcopically.

ACUTE SINUSITIS

Acute sinusitis presents in one of two classic fashions. The first is on the tail of an acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Rhinitis in the form of an acute upper URI, Virtually everyone suffering from an upper URI initially develops a clear nasal discharge emanating both from the nose and the paranasal sinuses. This invariably develops into a bacterial super infection, manifest clinically as a green or yellow mucopurulent nasal discharge. During the upper URI, many patients have signs and symptoms of paranasal sinus disease. These include pressure, pain, nasal congestion, purulent rhinorrhea, both anterior and posterior, presenting as a postnasal drip. If following upper respiratory infection which is viral usually symptomatic treatment is enough.This includes oral & topical decongestants & steam inhalations.

Tonsils

Tonsils are made of soft glandular tissue and are part of the immune system. You have two tonsils, one on either side at the back of the mouth.

Adenoids

Adenoids are also made of glandular tissue and are part of the immune system. They hang from the upper part of the back of the nasal cavity.

Adenoids get bigger after you are born but usually stop growing between the ages of 3 and 7 years.

Although tonsils and adenoids may help to prevent infection, they are not considered to be very important. The body has other means of preventing infection and fighting off bacteria and viruses. In fact, the adenoids tend to shrink after early childhood, and by the teenage years they often almost disappear completely. Generally, you can have your tonsils and adenoids removed without increasing your risk of infection.

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